Rehabilitation in scoliosis - an overview of the most important procedures

Jakub Husejko, Aneta Karło, Paula Piątkowska, Mateusz Porada, Marlena Kontowicz, Zuzanna Leśniak, Bogusz Olszewski, Magdalena Łabędź, Maciej Romaniuk, Kornelia Kędziora-Kornatowska

Abstract


Introduction: Scoliosis is defined as deformation of the spine and torso in three dimensions. Study show that scoliosis affects 68% of healthy individuals over 65 years of age with no low back pain. The aim of this article is to review the available scoliosis rehabilitation methods, including the newest physical rehabilitation trends.

Material and methods: Articles in the Google Scholar, Pub Med database have been analysed using keywords: scoliosis, deformation of the spine and torso, modern methods of rehabilitation, older people.

Results: After skeletal maturity, curves less than 30°do not progress, however most curves greater than 50°continue to progress with approximate change of 1°per year. Bracing is one of the most popular options of scoliosis treatment. Braces usage aims to slow the progression of the curve. However, complications resulting from the physical changes caused by the compression of the body and/or psychological effects due to the disturbance of the appearance while wearing the brace may occure. The Lehnert-Schroth three-plane corrective breath method principles are: a proper breathing technique where the ribs are used as levers and the breath is directed to the unstretched parts of lungs allowing correction of the curvature of the spine, and secondly activation of non-working muscles on the side of the concave curvature. Nevertheless, surgical procedure is advised for curves greater than 45° in immature patients and greater than 50° in mature patients.

Conclusions: Scoliosis, defined as spinal and torso deformity in three planes. 80% of all cases of this postural defect are juvenile idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, degenerative scoliosis developed during the patient’s life due to the degeneration of the discs of the spine is frequent in people over the age of 65. It often limits daily functioning and can cause severe pain that requires medical intervention. It has been proven that properly selected systematic rehabilitation may lead to significant improvement in the spinal alignment. Nevertheless, in severe cases surgical treatment may be necessary.

Keywords


scoliosis; deformation of the spine and torso; modern methods of rehabilitation; older people

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