Analysis of changes in the morphology of erythrocytes – microscopic evaluation of peripheral blood smears

Magdalena Gibka, Ewa Grudzińska, Anna Fabian-Danielewska


Microscopic assessment of peripheral blood smears belongs to the basic techniques of quantitative and qualitative analysis of leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets. Modern hematology analyzers allow accurate and precise assessment of blood cells, flagging parameters that are beyond the limit of the norm. Despite advanced technologies, the automatic peripheral blood smear is devoid of detailed data on abnormalities in the shape of erythrocytes, the presence of inclusions and erythroblasts, which can only be obtained by manual evaluation of peripheral blood smears. The following work aims to highlight the role of manual evaluation of peripheral blood smears, with particular emphasis on the assessment of abnormalities in the morphology of erythrocytes, which despite the passage of time should still be routinely performed as a supplement to modern diagnostic tools.


peripheral blood smear; erythrocytes; anemia

Full Text:



Palmer L., Briggs C., McFadden S., Zini G., Burthem J., Rozenberg G et al.; ICSH recommendations for the standardization of nomenclature ang grading of peripheral blood cell morphological features. Int J Lab Hematol 2015;37,287-303.

Rozp. MZ z dnia 23 marca 2006 r. w sprawie standardów jakości dla medycznych laboratoriów diagnostycznych i mikrobiologicznych (Dz. U. 04.43.408 z późn. zm.).

Adewoyin A.S, Nwogoh B.; Peripheral blood film - a review. Ann Ib Postgrad Med. 2014;12,71-79.

Rodziewcz-Lurzyńska A., Bobilewicz D.; Rola badań laboratoryjnych w diagnostyce szpiczaka mnogiego i innych dyskrazji plazmocytów. Diagn Lab 2015; 51,43-52

Erkus E., Kocak M.Z., Aktas G., Ozen M., Atak B.M., Duman T.T. Et al.; A Rare Non-Hemolytic Case of Idiopathic Cold Agglutinin Disease. Clin Lab. 2018;64,1075-1078.

Needs T., Lynch D.T.; Beta Thalassemia. StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. 2018 Nov 23.

Veda P.; Evaluation of Macrocytosis in Routine Hemograms. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus. 2013;29,26–30.

Spychalska J.; Membranopatie krwinek czerwonych — patogeneza, obraz kliniczny i diagnostyka. Hematologia 2012;3,81–119.

Joly B.S, Coppo P., Veyradier A.; An update on pathogenesis and diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Expert Rev Hematol. 2019;12,383-395.

Górska-Kosicka M. , Jerzy Windyga J., Varia Medica 2017;1,24–30.

Ishikawa T., Kubota T., Horigome R., Kimura N., Honda H., Iwanaga A., et al.; Prevalence of Howell-Jolly Bodies Caused by Partial Splenic Embolization for Portal Hypertension. Intern Med. 2013;52:1765-1768.

Carr J.H., Rodak B.F.; Atlas hematologii klinicznej. Wyd. wyd. pol. Dąbrowska M. Wrocław:Elsevier Urban & Partner; 2011. ISBN 978-1-4160-5039-1.

Mathison B.A., Pritt B.S.; Update on Malaria Diagnostics and TestUtilization. J Clin Microbiol. 2017;55, 2009-2017.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 © The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2 Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase


Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski