Autoimmune / inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) – variety of symptoms

Magdalena Makarewicz, Katarzyna Łapa, Magdalena Kubicka, Barbara Maziarz, Barbara Nieradko-Iwanicka


The autoimmune / inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) has been described by Shoenfeld and Agon-Levin (in 2011). It is an autoimmune / auto-inflammatory disease caused by adjuvants. Adjuvants are substances able to induce autoimmunity via various mechanisms such as a change in the host immune system, polyclonal activation of B cells, effects on cellular immunity, immunoregulatory cells, antibodies induced by viruses or acceleration of molecular mimicry.
The aim
The purpose of the work was to congregate information about ASIA useful in medical practice.
State of knowledge
The ASIA syndrome can be diagnosed when two main or one main and two smaller criteria are fulfil.
The main criteria:
External stimulus exposure
Muscle pains, muscle inflammation or muscle weakness
Arthralgia and / or arthritis
Chronic fatigue, sleep without rest or sleep disorder
Neurological symptoms
Impaired cognitive function, memory loss
Fever, dry mouth
Removal of the inducing factor induces an improvement
Result of organ biopsy
Smaller criteria:
Other clinical signs (irritable bowel syndrome)
Presence of HLA antigens (ie HLA DRB1, HLA DQB1)
Development of autoimmune disease (multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis).
Asia syndrome may occur after implantation of silicone breast implants and cause various complications of other pain, fever and skin changes.
Autoimmune / auto-inflammatory disorders can be caused by silicone implants and vaccine adjuvants: they include the presence of autoantibodies, muscle and joint pain, lupus-like symptoms and hardened-like symptoms.


ASIA; adjuvants; autoimmune syndrome

Full Text:



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