Neonatal sepsis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment

Uliana Ivanivna Marusyk, Olena Vasylivna Vlasova, Maryana Ivanivna Hrytsiuk, Valentyna Volodymyrivna Bebykh

Abstract


Sepsis is a severe illness during the neonatal period. Despite significant advances in the care of newborn infants, sepsis remains a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The overall incidence of neonatal sepsis ranges from 1 to 5 cases per 1,000 births and case fatality rates (CFRs) range from 2 % to 60 %. Both rates depend on multiple factors, such as pathogen distribution, gestational age, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) carriage rates and prevalence of other common specific pathogens.
Most types of microorganisms can cause sepsis, including bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites, such as those that cause malaria. Bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Neisseria meningitidis are the most common etiological pathogens. Manifestations of sepsis and septic shock can be the fatal frequent pathway of infections with seasonal influenza viruses, dengue viruses and highly transmissible pathogens of public health concern such as avian and swine influenza viruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and most recently, Ebola and yellow fever viruses.
It is descriptive, non-experimental study. The aim of it is to specify the etiologic factors, clinical manifestation, diagnostic criteria and treatment of sepsis.
Based on the results of the study conclusion is that the use of non-culture based diagnostics and sepsis scores to predict and diagnose septic neonates are areas of active investigation. The next frontier for antibiotic stewardship in the neonatal intensive care unit must be development of strategies to decrease antibiotic use and minimise adverse effects by a thorough study of duration of therapy.

Keywords


Neonatal sepsis, complete blood count, blood culture, antimicrobial therapy

Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organization. EB140/12. 9 January 2017.

Singer M., Deutschman C.S., C.W. Seymour et al. The third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Sepsis-3). “JAMA” 2016; 315(8): 801-810. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.0287.

Kayange N., Kamugisha E., Mwizamholya D.L., Jeremiah S., Mshana S.E. Predictors of positive blood culture and deaths among neonates with suspected neonatal sepsis in a tertiary hospital. “Mwanza-Tanzania BMC Pediatr.” 2010; 10: 39.

Bailit J.L., Gregory K.D., Reddy U.M. et al. Maternal and neonatal outcomes by labor onset type and gestational age. “Am J Obstet Gynecol.” 2010; 202: 245.

Weston E.J., Pondo T., Lewis M.M. et al. The burden of invasive early-onset neonatal sepsis in the United States, 2005–2008. “Pediatr Infect Dis J.” 2011; 30: 937–941.

Ahmad M.S, Waheed A. Platelet counts, MPV and PDW in culture proven and probable neonatal sepsis and association of platelet counts with mortality rate. “J Coll Physicians Surg Pak.” 2014; 24: 340–344.

Levent F., Baker C.J, Rench M.A., Edwards M.S. Early outcomes of group B streptococcal meningitis in the 21st century. “Pediatr Infect Dis J.” 2010; 29: 1009–1012.

Tripathi N., Cotten C.M., Smith P.B. Antibiotic use and misuse in the neonatal intensive care unit. “Clin Perinatol.” 2012; 39: 61–68.

Beltempo M., Thibeault R., Julien A., Piedboeuf B. C-reactive protein for late-onset sepsis diagnosis in very low birth weight infants. “BMC Pediatrics” 2018; 18: 16. DOI 10.1186/s12887-018-1002-5

Edwards M.S., Baker C.J. Bacterial infections in the neonate. In Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Disease. 4th ed, Long S.S., Pickering L.K., Prober C.G. Philadephia: Elsevier Saunders; 2012: 538–544.

Didier C., Streicher M.P., Chognot D. et al. Late-onset neonatal infections: incidences and pathogens in the era of antenatal antibiotics. “Eur J Pediatr.” 2012; 171: 681–687.

Lamping F., Jack T., Rübsamen N., et al. Development and validation of a diagnostic model for early differentiation of sepsis and non-infectious SIRS in critically ill children - a data-driven approach using machine learning algorithms “BMC Pediatrics” 2018; 18: 112. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-018-1082-2.

Alcock G., Liley H.G., Cooke L. et al. Prevention of neonatal late-onset sepsis: a randomised controlled trial “BMC Pediatrics” 2017; 17: 98. DOI 10.1186/s12887-017-0855-3.

Kamalakannan S.K. Neonatal Sepsis Past to Present Biomed “J Sci & Tech Res” 2018; 3:3: DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2018.03.000909

Hossain S., Shah P.S., Ye X.Y. et al. Canadian Neonatal Network; Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network. Outcome comparison of very preterm infants cared for in the neonatal intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand and in Canada. “J Paediatr Child Health.” 2015; 51(9): 881–888

Bizzarro M.J., Shabanova V., Baltimore R.S. et al. Neonatal sepsis 2004–2013: the rise and fall of coagulasenegative staphylococci. “J Pediatr.” 2015; 166(5): 1193–1199.

Resende D.S., Peppe A.L., dos Reis H. et al. Late onset sepsis in newborn babies: epidemiology and effect of a bundle to prevent central line associated bloodstream infections in the neonatal intensive care unit. “Braz J Infect Dis.” 2015; 19(1): 52–57.

Muley V.A., Ghadage D.P., Bhore A.V. Bacteriological profile of neonatal septicemia in a tertiary care hospital from Western India. “J Glob Infect Dis.” 2015; 7(2): 75–77.

Shane A.L., Sánchez P.J., Stoll B.J. Neonatal sepsis Published Online April 20, 2017 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ S0140-6736(17)31002-4

Mkony M.F., Mizinduko M.M., Massawe A., Matee M. Management of neonatal sepsis at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam: diagnostic accuracy of C – reactive protein and newborn scale of sepsis and antimicrobial resistance pattern of etiological bacteria. “BMC Pediatrics” 2014; 14: 293. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2431/14/293

Anand K.R., G.S.P. Alistair Diagnostic Tests in Neonatology: Evaluation and Interpretation Using Sepsis as an Example “NeoReviews” 2011; 12; 368. DOI: 10.1542/neo.12-7-e368

Hornik C.P., Benjamin D.K., Becker K.C. et al. Use of the complete blood cell count in late-onset neonatal sepsis. “Pediatr Infect Dis J.” 2012; 31(8): 803–807.

Hornik C.P., Fort P., Clark R.H. et al. Early and late onset sepsis in very-low-birth-weight infants from a large group of neonatal intensive care units. “Early Hum Dev.” 2012; 88(Suppl 2): 69–74.

Benitz W.E. Adjunct laboratory tests in the diagnosis of early-onset neonatal sepsis. “Clin Perinatol” 2010, 37(2): 421–438.

Mishra U.K., Jacobs S.E., Doyle L.W., Garland S.M. Newer approaches to the diagnosis of early onset neonatal sepsis. “Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed” 2006; 91(3): 208–212.

Kumar R., Musoke R., Macharia W.M., Revathi G: Validation of c-reactive protein in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary care hospital in Kenya. “East Afr Med J” 2010; 87(6): 255–261.

Manucha V., Rusia U., Sikka M., Faridi M.M., Madan N. Utility of haematological parameters and C-reactive protein in the detection of neonatal sepsis. “J Paediatr Child Health” 2002; 38(5): 459–464.

Pammi M., Flores A., Versalovic J., Leeflang M.M. Molecular assays for the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates. “Cochrane Database Syst Rev” 2017; 2: CD011926.

Sullins A.K., Abdel-Rahman S.M. Pharmacokinetics of antibacterial agents in the CSF of children and adolescents. “Paediatr Drugs” 2013; 15: 93–117.

Sanchez P.J., Moallem M., Cantey J.B., Milton A., Michelow I.C. Empiric therapy with vancomycin in the neonatal intensive care unit: let’s “get smart” globally! “J Pediatr (Rio J)” 2016; 92: 432–435.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2653202

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 © The Author (s) 2019

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/search?search&searchCategory=WORK&filter.inJournal=36616

POL-index 2011 - 2014

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/polindex-webapp/browse/journal/journal-32a319c5-a850-4f44-ba70-1418a6087655

BASE 2011 - 2014

https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?lookfor=Journal+of+Health+Sciences+%28Radom%29&type=all&oaboost=1&ling=1&name=&thes=&refid=dcrespl&newsearch=1

http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

http://journal.rsw.edu.pl/index.php/JHS/issue/archive

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101679844

Find a library that holds this journal: http://worldcat.org/issn/23918306

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/journals/49068

POL-index

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/polindex-webapp/browse/journal/journal-c39c8169-88d2-45db-9e7f-d948ce9981c4

BASE

https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?join=AND&bool0[]=AND&lookfor0[]=2391-8306&type0[]=all&page=11&l=pl&oaboost=1&refid=dcpagepl

Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2  www.ukw.edu.pl Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info?id=485984

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.

http://journals.indexcopernicus.com/Journal+of+Education+Health+and+Sport,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase Index.com.

Website: www.infobaseindex.com

Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (http://www.uifactor.org/AppliedJournals.aspx)

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/journals/36616)

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ) http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski

(http://www1.bg.us.edu.pl/bazy/czasopisma/czasop_full.asp?id=3595)