Lead poisoning linked to occupational exposure - case reports

Andrzej Kościuk, Michał Kos, Justyna Drankowska, Michał Tchórz


Introduction: Lead is one of the oldest widely used industrial metals. Throughout the ages, its significant toxicity caused poisoning of exposed people. Even today occupational exposure remains a significant hazard.
Aim: The aim of the study is to depict the risk associated with lead exposure on the base of the case report.
Methods: Patient’s medical history analysis and the review of available literature.
Results: Two patients with history of occupational lead exposure were admitted to hospital. Their symptoms suggested chronic lead poisoning. Blood lead level was excessive in both cases. The patients were treated with antioxidants and advised to reduce their exposure to lead, with continuing ambulatory therapy.
Conclusions: All known effects of Pb are extremely harmful to humans.
Lead poisoning still appears to be a problem in some jobs and environments, particularly in cases of chronic low level exposure. Proper monitoring of workplace conditions and regular medical checkups for those at risk should be practiced to avoid cases of chronic poisoning in the future.


lead poisoning; occupational exposure

Full Text:



Flora G, Gupta D, Tiwari A. Toxicity of lead: A review with recent updates. Interdiscip Toxicol. 2012; Vol. 5(2): 47–58. doi: 10.2478/v10102-012-0009-2

Gilbert S, Weiss B. A rationale for lowering the blood lead action level from 10 to 2 mg/dL. NeuroToxicology. 2006; 27: 693–701. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2006.06.008

Flora S, Flora G, Saxena G. Environmental Occurrence, Health Effects and Management of Lead Poisoning. In Lead. 2006; p. 158–228. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-044452945-9/50004-X (accessed: 2018.12.27)

Needleman H. Lead poisoning. Annu Rev Med. 2004; 55: 209-222. doi: 10.1146/annurev.med.55.091902.103653

Tong S, Schirnding Y, Prapamontol T. Environmental lead exposure: a public health problem of global dimensions. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2000; 78 (9): 1068- 1077. https://www.who.int/bulletin/archives/78(9)1068.pdf (accessed: 2018.12.27)

WHO World Health Organization. Inorganic Lead. Environmental Health Criteria Number 165, Geneva. 1995. http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc165.htm (accessed: 2018.12.28)

Tong S. Lead exposure and cognitive development: persistence and a dynamic pattern. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 1998; 34: 114–118. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1754.1998.00187.x (accessed: 2018.12.29)

Gordon J, Taylor A, Bennett P. Lead poisoning: case studies. Blackwell Science Ltd Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2002; 53: 451- 458. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2125.2002.01580.x (accessed: 2018.12.29)

Sanders T, Liu Y, Buchner V, Tchounwou P. Neurotoxic effects and biomarkers of lead exposure: A Review. Res Environ Health. 2009; 24: 15–45. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2858639/ (accessed: 2018.12.29)

Hou S, Yuan L, Jin P, Ding B, Qin N, Li L et al.: A clinical study of the effects of lead poisoning on the intelligence and neurobehavioral abilities of children. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling. 2013; 10:13. http://www.tbiomed.com/content/10/1/13 (accessed: 2018.12.29)

Piomelli S. Childhood lead poisoning. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2002; 49: 1285- 1304. DOI: 10.1016/S0031-3955(02)00097-4

Alissa E, Ferns G. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Toxicology Volume 2011, Article ID 870125, 21 pages. doi:10.1155/2011/870125

Flora S. Arsenic induced oxidative stress and its reversibility. Free Rad Biol Med. 2011; 51: 257–281. DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.04.008

Neal A, Guilarte T. Mechanisms of Lead and Manganese Neurotoxicity. http://pubs.rsc.org | doi:10.1039/C2TX20064C (accessed: 2018.12.23)

Flora S. Nutritional components modify metal absorption, toxic response and chelation therapy. J Nut Environ Med. 2002; 12: 53–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/13590840220123361 (accessed: 2018.12.28)

Ahamed M, Siddiqui M. Low level lead exposure and oxidative stress: Current opinions. Clin Chim Acta. 2007; 383: 57–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2007.04.024 (accessed: 2018.12.29)

Garza A, Vega R, Soto E. Cellular mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity. Med Sci Monit. 2006; 12: RA57–65. PMID: 16501435

ATSDR CASE STUDIES IN ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE (CSEM). Lead Toxicity. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/csem.asp?csem=34&po=8#table4 (accessed: 2018.12.27)

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546071


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 © The Authors

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014


POL-index 2011 - 2014


BASE 2011 - 2014




Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI


Find a library that holds this journal: http://worldcat.org/issn/23918306

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland






Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2  www.ukw.edu.pl Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info?id=485984

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.


ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase Index.com.

Website: www.infobaseindex.com

Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (http://www.uifactor.org/AppliedJournals.aspx)

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/journals/36616)

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ) http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski