The assesment of trigger points (TrPs) apperiance in masticatory muscles and cervical spine in patients with stomatognathic system (SS) disorders- preliminary reports

Magdalena Gębska, Katarzyna Weber-Nowakowska, Anna Mikołajczyk-Kocięcka, Wojciech Garczyński


Introduction: Increased tension around masticatory muscles can cause pain disorders in facial part of the skull, temporomandibular joint, supra- and infrahyoid area and cervical spine. Unphisiological muscle work bring up Trigger Points (TrPs). The consequences is heterotropic pain.
Aim: The objective of the study was the assesment of Trigger Points (TrPs) apperiance in masticatory muscles and cervical spine in patients with myogenic disorders in stomatognathic system.
Material and Methods: 135 female (age 20 – 45 years old) diagnosed with myogenic disorders in stomatognathic system and pain in facial part of the skull were assesed. Physical examination were conducted: medical interview, assesment of Trigger Points (TrPs) apperiance in masticatory muscles and cervical spine.
Results: All patients had pain disorders in facial part of the skull, and reported increased tension in masticatory muscles. 98% had cervical spine pain disorders. All women had increased palpatic tenderness in masticatory muscles and cervical spine. The number of Trigger Points (TrPs) in supraficial head of masseter muscle was similar to the number of TrPs in sternocleidomastoid muscle of the same side of the body.


stomatognathic system; cervical spine; trigger points; pain

Full Text:



Pacini T.: Neck posture, cervical spine problems, temporomandibular joint the Anthropometric Ergonomic Biomechanical Method (A.E.B.). Naučni Tr. (Rusenskiâ Univ. Angel K”nčev), 2013; 52, 8.1., 47-51.

Okeson J.P.: Leczenie dysfunkcji narządu żucia i zaburzeń zwarcia. Wyd. I pod red. W. Drobka, Czelej, 26-28, Lublin 2005.

Laskin D.M.: Etiology of the pain-dysfunction syndrome. J. Am. Dent. Assoc., 1969;79 (1):147-53.

Ballenberger N., Piekartz H., Paris-Alemany A., La Touche R., Angulo-Diaz-Parreno S.: Influence of different upper cervical position on electromyography activity of the masticatory muscles. J. Manipulative Physiol. Ther., 2012, 35, 4, 308 – 318.

McClean L.F., Brenman H.S., Friedman M.G.. : Effects of changing body position on dental occlusion. J. Dent. Res., 1973, 52 (2):1041-1045.

Funakoshi M., Fujita N., Takehana S.: Relations between occlusal interferencje and jaw muscle activities In response to changes in head position. J. Dent. Res., 1976, 55 (4): 686-690.

Walczyńska-Dragon K., Baron S., Baron A.: Ból w obrębie układu ruchowego narządu żucia a bóle kręgosłupa. Przegląd piśmiennictwa. Pain in the region of the locomotory system of the chewing apparatus and pain of the spinal column. Review of the literature. Mag. Stomatol., 2011,9,100-106.

Jancelewicz M.: Optymalizacja opieki nad chorymi z dysfunkcją układu stomatognatycznego – z uwzględnieniem roli współpracy lekarza stomatologa i specjalisty terapii manualnej. Optimized care of patients with stomatognatic system dysfunctions with the focus on cooperation of a dentist and a manual therapy specialist. Hygeia, 2010, 45 (1), 21-24.

Panek H.: Holistic Concept of the stomatognathic system. Dent. Med. Probl.,2004, 41 ,2, 277-280.

Jagucka-Mętel W., Brzeska P., Sobolewska E., Machoy-Mokrzyńska A., Baranowska A.: Terapia dysfunkcji układu ruchowego narządu żucia- problem interdyscyplinarny. Mag. Stomatol., 2013,1, 30-36.

Simons D.G., Travell J.G., Simons L.S.: Travell and Simons’ Myofacial Pain and Dysfunction the trigger point manual. Volume 1.Upper Half of Body. Williams & Williams. Baltimor, 69-75, 1999.

Bron C., Franssen J.: Mięśniowo - powięziowe punkty spustowe – przegląd uwzględniający dowody naukowe. Myofascial Trigger Points: An Evidence-Informed Review. Rehabil. Med. 2006, 10,4,39-56.

De-la-Llave-Rincon AI, Alonso-Blanco C, Gil-Crujera A, Ambite-Quesada S, Svensson P, Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C.: Myofacial trigger points in the masticatory muscles in patients with and without chronic mechanical neck pain.J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2012 Nov-Dec;35(9):678-84.

Ballenberger N., Piekartz H., Paris-Alemany A., La Touche R., Angulo-Diaz-Parreno S.: Influence of different upper cervical position on electromyography activity of the masticatory muscles. J. Manipulative Physiol. Ther., 2012, 35, 4, 308 – 318.

Matheus R.A., Ramos-Peres F.M., Menezes A.V., Ambrosano G.M., Haiter-Neto F., Boscolo F.N.: The relationship between temporomandibular dysfunction and head and cervical posture. J. Appl. Oral. Sci., 2009,17(3),204-208.

Olivo S.A., Fuentes J., Major P.W., Warren S., Thie N.M., Maggee D.J.: The association between neck disability and jaw disability. J. Oral Rehabil., 2010,37(9), 670-679.

La Touche R., Paris-Alemany A., Piekartz H., Mannheimer J.S., Fernandez-Carnero J., Rocabado M..: The influence of cranio-cervical posture on maximal mouth opening and posture pain threshold in patients with myofacial themporomandibular pain disorders. Clin. J. Pain,2011,27,1,48-55.

Walczyńska-Dragon., Baron S., Nitecka-Buchta A., Tkacz E.: Correlation between TMD and cervical spine pain and mobility: In whole body balance TMJ related?. Bio. Med. Research International, 2014,19, 6,1-7.

Śmiga-Witas A., Kostrzewa-Janicka J., Brożyński M., Anulewicz A., Prątnicki M.: Zależność pomiędzy występowaniem schorzeń w obrębie układu ruchowego narządu żucia a zaburzeniami w części szyjnej kręgosłupa. Relationship between temporomandibular and cervical spine disorders. Protet.Stomatol.,2011, LXI, 6, 466-475.

Gębska M., Lietz-Kijak D., Opalko K., Żyżniewska-Banasza E., Śliwiński Z.:

Application of manual therapy in the elimination of myogenic pain in stomatognathic system.Fizjoter. Pol.2015; 15, 2, s. 60-67.

Cuccia A., Caradonna C.: The relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. Clinics, 2009;64 (1):61-6.

Valentino B., Melito F., Aldi B., Valentino T.: Correlation between interdental occlusal plane and plantar arches. A EMG study. Bull. Group Int. Rech. Sci.Stomatol.Odontol.,2002, 44,10-35.

Wiesinger B., Malker H, Englund E, Wanman A.: Back pain in relation to musculoskeletal disorders in the jaw-face. A matched case-control study. Pain, 2007,131, 3, 311-319.

La Touche R., Fernandez- de – las – Penas C., Fernandez – Carnero J., Escalante K., Angulo – Diaz- Parreno S., Paris – Alemany A., et al : The effects of manual therapy and exercise directed at the cervical spine on pain and pressure pain sensitivity in patients with myofacial temporomandibular disorders. J. Oral Rehabil.,2009, 36,644-652.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 © The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2 Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase


Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski