Deformation of spine – review of the literature

Gustaw Wójcik, Ewelina Wójcik, Anna Szulc


Deformation is an undesirable change in shape, which in medicine means a pathological change that applies to all types of tissues, including bone. Spinal deformities refer to changes in the shape of individual vertebrae, which also affects changes in the entire column of the spine and consequently causes defects in posture, which is recognized as a symptom of disability.
The main changes in spinal deformation include deformations of vertebral bodies with changes in their height and formation of bone growth, changes in arches and joints processes and leaving transverse and spinous processes .
Variable number of vertebrae in individual sections of the spine is not treated as a change corresponding to the definition of deformation but as an anatomical variant.
The aim of the work was to present the most common deformities within the spine.


spine; degenerative changes; deformation vertebra; change in the curvature of the spine

Full Text:



Bochenek A, Reicher M, Anatomia człowieka. Tom 1. Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, Warszawa 2002; s. 222-232.

Wójcik G, Pocztarska A. Variations in morphology of lumbar spinal canal in degenerative discopathy. Health Problems of Civilization, 2016; 10(4): 47-53.

Wójcik G. Effect of intervertebral disc disease on scoliosis in the lumbar spine. Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences 2014, 27(3): 155-158

Wójcik G. Epidemiolologia i klasyfikacja kręgozmyków odcinka lędźwiowo-krzyżowego. Journal of Education Health and Sport, 2017; 7(7): 572-579.

Wójcik G. Epidemiologia i klasyfikacja kręgozmyków odcinka lędźwiowo-krzyżowego, Część II. Journal of Education, Health and Sport 2017; 7(8): 367-377.

Wong SH, Chiu KY, Yan CH. Review Article: Osteophytes. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2016; 24(3): 403-410.

Wójcik G, Baj-Korpak J, Szulc A. Choroba Szcheuermanna – diagnostyka i rehabilitacja. Conference paper of VI Ogólnopolska Konferencja Naukowo-Szkoleniowa LUBELSKIE DNI PROMUJĄCE ZDROWIE „Medyczno-społeczne i prawne aspekty opieki nad dzieckiem”, Lublin 2018.

Wójcik G, Szulc A, Skalska-Izdebska R, Piwoński P, Żmuda-Pałka M. Rehabilitacja osób po zabiegach kyfoplastyki w następstwie złamań osteoporotycznych kręgosłupa lędźwiowego. IX Międzynarodowe Dni Rehabilitacji. Rzeszów, Conference paper 2017.

Wójcik G, Szulc A. Leczenie tradycyjne a wertebro- i kyfoplastyka u pacjentów po złamaniach kompresyjnych trzonów kręgów - możliwości postępowania rehabilitacyjnego. III Ogólnopolska Konferencja Naukowa : Innowacyjna Fizjoterapia - neurologia, pediatria, sport. Conference paper, Lublin 2017.

Wójcik G, Sokołowska B, Urbańczuk M, Amarowicz M. Evaluation of the frequency of occurrence of some changes and birth defects of lumbar-sacral spine among patients registering for CT examination due to the back pain. Forum Med. Rodz. 2015, 9(3): 206-208.

Urrutia J, Cuellar J, Zamora T. Spondylolysis and spina bifida occulta in pediatric patients: prevalence study using computed tomography as a screening method. Eur Spine J. 2016; 25(2): 590-5.

Alonso F, Bryant E, Iwanaga J, Chapman JR, Oskouian RJ, Tubbs RS. Baastrup's Disease: A Comprehensive Review of the Extant Literature. World Neurosurg. 2017; 101: 331-334.

Kalichman L. et all. Association between computed tomography-evaluated lumbar lordosis and features of spinal degeneration, evaluated in supine position. Spine J. 2011; 11: 30.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 © The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2 Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase


Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski