Change of the precision of hand movements in young men after short-term (anaerobic) exercise

Dawid Koźlenia, Iwona Wierzbicka-Damska, Izabela Trojanowska, Jarosław Domaradzki


Background: Physical exercise causes disturbances of body homoeostasis resulting in fatigue. This affect the quality of motor activity, including precision of hand movement. The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of a short-term (anaerobic) physical exercise on hand movement in men in static and dynamic conditions.
Materials &methods: The study group comprised of 52 young men aged 20.44±7.87 years old. Heartbeat frequency, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Precision of hand movement was studied with the use of the MLS module from the Vienna Test System. Tests of precise hand movements were conduced in static and dynamic conditions. A number of errors committed was analysed. Tests were performed with a dominant hand, twice: before and after an anaerobic exercise. The exercise test was to perform a maximum number of arm flexes in frontal support (press-ups), until denied.
Results: Comparison of test results before and after the exercise indicated a statistically significant increase of hand tremor in statics and no changes in dynamics after the exercise. This occurrence was manifested by a number of errors made. Using multiple regression, it was shown that hand tremor in statics is related to body built. Higher values of height and body mass correlated with a greater number of errors. A statistically significant impact of resting heartbeat frequency on a number of errors in statics was also observed. In dynamic conditions, a relationship between hand tremor and a volume of work performed and the resultant heartbeat frequency was detected. The increase in number of flexes by one causes the increase in number of errors by two.
Conclusion: Physical exercise significantly affects hand precision in statics in the students studied. Impact of physical exercise on a greater number of errors committed in a dynamic test was not observed.


tremor; hand motor; movement precission; anaerobic effort

Full Text:



Abd-Elfattah H, Abdelazeim F, Elshennawyb S. Physical and cognitive consequences of fatigue: A review. Journal of Advanced Research 2015; 6(3): 351–358.

Carmeli E, Patish H, Coleman R. The aging hand. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2003;58:146–152

Christakos C. N., Erimaki S., Anagnostou E., Anastasopoulos D. Tremor-related motor unit firing in PD: implications for tremor genesis. Journal of Physiology. 2009; 587 4811–4827.

Edwards R.H.T.: Biochemical bases of fatigue in exercise per-formance: Catastrophe theory of muscular fatigue; Biochemistry of Exercise. Knuttgen HG, Vogel JA, Poortmans J. (red.). Human Kinetics, Champaign. 1983: 3–28

Gajewski J. Fatigue-induced changes in tremor caused by physical efforts of different volume and intensity. Acta of Bioengeenering and Biomechanics. 2006; 8, 103–110.

Gremion G, Kuntzer T. Fatigue and reduction in motor performance in sportspeople or overtraining syndrome. Revue Medicale Suisse. 2014;10(428):962 - 965.

Goonetilleke RS, Hoffmann ER, Lau WC. Pistol shooting accuracy as dependent on experience, eyes being opened and available viewing time. Applied Ergonomics. 2009; 40(3):500-8.

Górski J (scientific ed.) Fizjologia wysiłku i treningu fizycznego [The physiology of physical effort and training]. Warszawa: PZWL; 2015:81-85

Koster A, Visser M, Simonsick EM, Yu B, Allison DB, Newman AB, et al. Association between fitness and changes in body composition and muscle strength. Journal of American Geriatrics Society. 2010;58(2):219–226

Hancock CR, Janssen E, Terjung RL. Skeletal muscle contractile performance and ADP accumulation in adenylate kinase-deficient mice. American Journal of Physiology & Cell Physiology. 2005 Jun;288(6):C1287-97

Kruse P, Ladefoged J, Nielsen U, Paulev PE & Sørensen JP. beta-Blockade used in precision sports: effect on pistol shooting performance. Journal of Applied Physiology 1986; 61, 417–420.

Lakie M. Is essential tremor physiological? In Handbook of Tremor Disorders. Findley LJ, Koller WC. (red.). Marcel Dekker, New York 1994a:165–183.

Lakie M,Walsh EG, Arblaster LA, Villagra F & Roberts RC. Limb temperature and human tremors. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 1994b; 57, 35–42

Pellegrini B, Faesb L, Nollob G & Schena F. Quantifyingthe contribution of arm postural tremor to the outcome ofgoal-directed pointing task by displacement measures. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 2004; 139, 185–193.

Pellegrini B, Tosi G & Schena F. Skills effects of arm tremor while shooting at a target. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 2005; 45, 467–475.

Sebastjan A, Dąbrowska G,Ignasiak Z, Ignasiak, Żurek G. Evaluation of precise motor skills of a hand in elderly women representing different levels of physical activity. 2008; Physiotherapy 16(1):41-45

Skrzek A, Přidalová M,Sebastjan A,Harásková D, Fugiel J, Ignasiak Z, Slawinska T, Rozek K. Fine motor skills of the hands in Polish and Czech female senior citizens from different backgrounds. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. 2015; 27(4): 491–498

Zatoń M, Jastrzębska A. (scientific ed.) Testy fizjologiczne w ocenie wydolności fizycznej. [Physiological tests in the assessment of physical performance]. Warszawa: PWN; 2010:18-28



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 © The Authors

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2 Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase


Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski