The Basketball warms-ups - theoretical assumptions and practical solutions

Sebastian Łubiński, Jan Kosendiak

Abstract


Many authors emphasize the importance of warm-up. Warm-up in team games aims at enhancing the body adaptation to the physical activity and to activate physiological functions from the rest state to the active state. Warm-up brings many different benefits, for example: physiological, psychological, and preventive, regardless of the classification of the above. From a psychological standpoint, the warm-up is performed to create the body "alertness", activity and readiness, and a willingness to act effectively. It was found that the players who perform the correct warm-up are better mentally prepared than those who do not perform it. After a well performed warm-up, the athlete is self-confident and has a positive attitude to the match. It is believed that the warm-up can also be the way to relieve tension and anxiety and to increase concentration and motivation before the match. Warm-up also improves the emotional states and reduces fear of failure. It has been verified that the warm-up, performed under appropriate conditions, improves focus, visual perception, action accuracy, self-confidence, speed and responsiveness, speed of processing and decision making. From the physiological point of view, the warm-up is an activity that adapts the basketball player’s body to an effort. It is an important factor that affects the effect of participation in the competition. Data from the literature suggest that the warm-up individualization is necessary in terms of duration and intensity. There are two types of warm-ups: passive and active. Passive warm-up is the one that is performed by using hot showers, baths, saunas, and steam baths or by using energetics massage. Active warm-up requires a lot of commitment and determination from the athlete during exercises that prepare the body and muscles for an effort. The training measures used during this part of warm-up are the general exercises that improve strength, stretch, coordination, and technical-tactical activities, and activities with the ball or without it. The cognitive purpose of the paper: was to find and develop the best possible pre-match warm-up structures based on current literature. These data were used to determine a "model" (pattern) of optimal warm-up. The practical aim was to formulate guidelines for basketball coaches to develop the warm-up structures, taking into account the duration and proportion of dynamic and static exercises that prepare the body for play. The research material was 12 male players from the basketball team playing in the top tournaments in Poland and in the Tauron Basket League. 11 players were included in the play reliability study, because one of them did not participate in the play and it was impossible to determine his play effectiveness. The team was ranked in the top five of the 2014/2015 league table. The standardized observation method was used in the study. The method consisted in observing people with respect to the purpose of observation, taking into account strictly defined behavioral (reactions) categories the researchers were interested in. To evaluate the players’ effectiveness during the match, the original result sheet of the players’ performance based on the Superlak project was used. As a result of the research, no correlation between the type of warm-up performed by the respondents and the player’s reliability during the match was observed. According to authors, the results allow formulating the following conclusions:

•    In the Extra-class team, many of the competitors skip the general phase and performed only the specialist phase. There is a division based on the type of exercises (dynamic, static, ball).

•    Based on the observation made, the warm-up performed by the Extra-class basketball players did not match the warm-up model resulting from the literature recommendations and it did not affect the player's reliability and performance during the match.

•    As a practical proposal, trainers should use rational, highly personalized warm-up models.


Keywords


basketball; warm-up; basketball training

Full Text:

PDF

References


Amiri-Khorasani M., Abu Osman N.A., Yusof A. (2011), Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on hip dynamic range of motion during instep kicking in professional soccer players, the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 25 No. 6, 1647-1652.

Berdejo-del-Fresno D. (2011), Calentamiento competitivo en baloncesto: revisión bibliográfica y propuesta,Revista de Ciencias del Depporte, 7(2) 101-116.

Birch K., MacLaren D., George K. (2012), Instant Notes Sport Exercise Physiology. New York, przekł. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa.

Bompa T., Zając A., Waśkiewicz Z., Chmura J. (2013), Przygotowanie Sprawnościowe w Zespołowych Grach Sportowych, Katowice.

Cichosz A. (2013), Rozgrzewka – ważny element wysiłku fizycznego, Wychowanie Fizyczne i Zdrowotne, 11, 32-35.

Chmura J. (2001), Szybkość w piłce nożnej, Katowice.

Chmura J. (2014), Rozgrzewka. Podstawy fizjologiczne i zastosowanie praktyczne, Warszawa.

Czerwiński J. (2007), Kontrola treningu i walki sportowej w grach zespołowych, Gdańsk.

Dembiński J. (2011), Koszykówka, Warszawa.

FIBA (2002), Koszykówka dla młodych zawodników. Wskazówki dla trenerów, przekł. Polski Związek Koszykówki.

Fletcher I.M., Monte- Colombo M.M. (2010), An investigation into the effects of different warm – up modalities on specific motor skills related to soccer performance, the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 24 No 8, 2096 – 2101.

Galdino L. (2010), Effects od different intensities of flexibility training on explosive force, Human Movement, vol 11 (2), 162-166.

Hough P.A., Ross E.Z., Howatson G. (2009), Effects of dynamic and static stretching on vertical jump performance and electromyographic activity, the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 23, No 2, 507-511.

Jackson P. (2014), 11 pierścieni, przekł. Rutkowski M., Kraków.

Kielak D. (2010), Rozgrzewka przed treningiem – jak ją urozmaicać?, Magazyn Trenera, 1, 26-29.

Ljach W. (2005), Koszykówka. Podręcznik dla studentów Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego, Kraków.

Łobocki M. (2006), Metody i techniki badań pedagogicznych, Kraków, s.49.

Makaruk H., Makaruk B., Kędra S. (2008), Wpływ zastosowania w rozgrzewce ćwiczeń rozciągających na efektywność biegu na krótkim dystansie, Wychowanie Fizyczne i Sportowe, vol. 52, (1), 21-25.

Makuch R. (2010), Rozgrzewka – przygotowanie młodych piłkarzy do zajęć i zawodów, Wychowanie Fizyczne i Zdrowotne, 5, 33 – 35.

Mohr M. i wsp. (2004), Muscle temperature and sprint performance during soccer matches- beneficial effect of re-warm-up at half time. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine Science in Sport 14 (3), 156-162.

Myszkorowski J. (2014), Rozgrywka z rozgrzewką, czyli fakty i mity o przygotowaniu do rywalizacji, 33, 31-36.

Naglak Z. (1977), Trening sportowy. Teoria i praktyka, Wrocław.

Naglak Z. (1999), Metodyka trenowania sportowca. Wrocław, AWF.

Naglak Z. (2005), Nauczanie i uczenie się wielopodmiotowej gry z piłką, Wrocław.

Naglak Z. (2010), Kształcenie gracza na podstawowym etapie, Wrocław.

Perrier E.T., Pavol M.J., Hoffman M.A. (2011), The acute effects of a warm – up including static Or dynamic stretching on countermovement jump height, reaction time, and flexibility, the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 25, No7, 1925-1931.

Schneider K. (2011), Rozgrzewka meczowa – przygotowanie do zawodów w piłce ręcznej, Wychowanie Fizyczne i Zdrowotne, 10, 32-35.

Sozański H., Sadowski J., Czerwiński J., (red.) (2015), Podstawy teorii i technologii treningu sportowego. Tom 2. Warszawa - Biała Podlaska.

Superlak E. (2005), Analiza kryteriów oceny sprawności działania w grze w piłce siatkowej w ujęciu prakseologicznym. [w:] S. Żak, M. Spieszny, T. Klocek (red.) Gry zespołowe w wychowaniu fizycznym i sporcie., Studia i Monografie AWF w Krakowie, 33, 281-286.

Trzaskoma Z. (2013), Czy rozgrzewka statyczna rozgrzewa organizm sportowca? Czyli jak wrócić do korzeni treningowych, Sport wyczynowy, 3-4, 162 – 167.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1120369

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 © The Author (s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/search?search&searchCategory=WORK&filter.inJournal=36616

POL-index 2011 - 2014

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/polindex-webapp/browse/journal/journal-32a319c5-a850-4f44-ba70-1418a6087655

BASE 2011 - 2014

https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?lookfor=Journal+of+Health+Sciences+%28Radom%29&type=all&oaboost=1&ling=1&name=&thes=&refid=dcrespl&newsearch=1

http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

http://journal.rsw.edu.pl/index.php/JHS/issue/archive

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101679844

Find a library that holds this journal: http://worldcat.org/issn/23918306

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/journals/49068

POL-index

https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/polindex-webapp/browse/journal/journal-c39c8169-88d2-45db-9e7f-d948ce9981c4

BASE

https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?join=AND&bool0[]=AND&lookfor0[]=2391-8306&type0[]=all&page=11&l=pl&oaboost=1&refid=dcpagepl

Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2  www.ukw.edu.pl Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info?id=485984

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.

http://journals.indexcopernicus.com/Journal+of+Education+Health+and+Sport,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase Index.com.

Website: www.infobaseindex.com

Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (http://www.uifactor.org/AppliedJournals.aspx)

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/journals/36616)

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ) http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski

(http://www1.bg.us.edu.pl/bazy/czasopisma/czasop_full.asp?id=3595)