Balance of individuals at different age involved in physical activity – review of publications

Angelika Winiarska, Anna Ziółkowska, Konrad Świtaj, Paweł Wojtczak


Balance is what we call the ability to control the center of gravity over the support plane in a given environment (also defined as the ability to maintain a vertical position of the body without the help of another person and the ability of regaining  balance during and after motion). Not only is inner ear responsible for mandating balance but also proprioceptors, cerebellum,  properly functioning nervous system and well-trained movement organs or efficient effector.  Postural control also is also affected by genetic conditions and primitive reactive strategies. Included to them are ankle strategy, that is restoring the center of gravity only by movements of the hocks, the hip strategy which is restoring the center of gravity by violent hip movements and step-by-step strategy in which making a step is required to restore the center of gravity. The balance system is quite complex. Damage to even on of the element of this system causes postural instability. In the case of disturbance of balance system , it can be indirectly influenced by nervous system through feedback, priming motion and motor control learning. Improved balance can be achieved with equivalent training. The aim of the study was to analyze different authors’ research on athlete balance. Five selected research articles on athletes have been analyzed. The authors have demonstrated a high level of effectiveness in balance training in the process of developing and improving the sense of balance. Individuals who have been in the past or are physically active now retain a better body balance.


athletes; balance; proprioceptive; training

Full Text:



Anna Olczak; Równowaga ciała człowieka. Ćwiczenia.; wyd. PZWL; Warszawa; 2016

Hanna Domżalska; Zmysł równowagi-organizacja anatomiczna, fizjologia, diagnostyka i leczenie zaburzeń. Praca magisterska.; Akademia medyczna im. Ludwika Rydygiera, Wydział Nauk o Zdrowiu; Bydgoszcz; 2004

I. Faizullina, E. Faizullinab; Effects of balance training on post-sprained ankle joint instability; International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine 27; 2015

Adam Piesik , Wojciech Hagner , Monika Struensee , Adam Zieminski , Norbert Łysiak; Wpływ treningu propriocepcji na sprawność utrzymania równowagi i kontroli posturalnej wraz z ułożeniem części ciała u kobiet zawodowo trenujących koszykówkę; Journal of Health Sciences; 3; 3; 18-26; 2011

Huihui Wang, Zhongqiu Jr, Guiping Jiang, Weitong Liu, Xibian Jiao; Correlation among proprioception, muscle strength, and balance; The Journal of Physical Therapy Science 28: 3468–3472, 2016

Daniel Leightley, Moi Hoon Yap, Jessica Coulson, Mathew Piasecki, James Cameron, Yoann Barnouin, Jon Tobias and Jamie S. McPhee; Postural Stability During Standing Balance and Sit-to-Stand in Master Athlete Runners Compared With Non-Athletic Old and Young Adults; Journal of Aging and Physical Activity September 26, 2016

Ben Moussa Zouita A., Majdoub O., Ferchichi H., Grandy K., Dziri C., Ben Salah FZ.; The effect of 8-weeks proprioceptive exercise program in postural sway and isokinetic strength of ankle sprains of Tunisian athletes; Annals of Physical and rehabilitation medicine Dec;56(9-10):634-43; 2013

Mohammod M.Islam, Erico Nasu, Michael E.Rogers, Daisuke Koizumi, Nicole L.Rogers and Nobuo Takeshima; Effects of combined sensory and muscular training on balance in Japanese older adults; Preventive Medicine 39; 1148– 1155; 2004

Valentina Agostini, Emma Chiaramello, Lorenzo Canavese, Carla Bredariol, Marco Knaflitz; Postural sway in volleyball players; Human Movement Science 32; 445–456; 2013



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 © The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2 Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase


Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski