Sexual dimorphism of the frequency of significant correlations between selected characteristics of body trunk and feet in young people aged 14 to 18 years

Roland Hadlich


Introduction. Sexual dimorphism in children aged 4 to 6 years, which concerns the number of characteristics of body trunk with significant correlations with the characteristics of feet and differentiating female from male individuals, is greater, with the characteristics showing more frequent correlations with the characteristics of feet in boys compared to girls. Furthermore, the number of the characteristics in the sagittal and frontal planes that differentiate girls is the same, whereas the characteristics that differentiate boys are those in the transverse, sagittal and frontal planes.

Material and Method. The examinations conducted in a group of young people aged 14 to 18 years allowed for recording 2343 observations, including 1148 girls and 1195 boys, and values of 89 characteristics that describe body trunk and feet.  The diagnostic stand used to measure selected characteristics using the photogrammetric method was composed of a personal computer, software, screen and printer, and a projection-reception device with a camera.


         1. Frequency of significant correlations between the characteristics of body trunk and feet that differentiate between boys and girls is higher, with boys showing more frequent correlations. Characteristics of frontal and transverse planes differentiate between the female individuals, whereas the characteristics of frontal and sagittal planes differentiate between male individuals.   

         2. The frequency of feet characteristics that most often show significant correlations between the characteristics of body trunk is the highest in boys compared to girls. These are morphological characteristics and those that characterize the longitudinal and transverse arches of the feet and finger disturbances. The characteristics that differentiate between girls describe only the longitudinal arch of the feet.


relationships, dimorphism, characteristics of body posture, feet, sex

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Sokołowski M., Mrozkowiak M., Związki wybranych cech opisujących stopy z cechami tułowia dzieci i młodzieży w wieku 4-18 lat. Correlations between selected characteristics that describe body trunk and feet in children and young people aged 4 to 18 years. 2017;7(6):281-316. eISSN 2391-8306.

Justyna Drzał-Grabiec, Sławomir Snela. The influence of rural environment on body posture. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine 2012; 19(4).

Mrozkowiak M., Modulacja, wpływ i związki wybranych parametrów postawy ciała dzieci i młodzieży w wieku od 4 do 18 lat w świetle mory projekcyjnej, Wydawnictwo UKW



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