The effect of squash training on shoulder girdle mobility and frequency of injury among player

Mikołaj Gajewski, Magdalena Alcer, Ewa Grygierzec, Karol Jabłoński, Justyna Szefler – Derela


Introduction: Squash is a relatively new field in the Polish sports market. Its specification is based primarily on dynamic movements, often taking place at the end of its scope. This condition is an increased risk of injury as well as numerous compensations throughout the body. Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the impact of squash training on shoulder mobility of active athletes and to identify factors likely to increase trauma among players. Does squash game cause hypermobility in all dimension? Do long-term breaks in squash training increase the frequency of injuries? Does pre-training warm up affect trauma? Material and method: The study consists 110 active players: 19 women (17%) and 91 men (83%) age between 17 and 50 years. The research tool was an author’s questionnaire consisting of metrics and closed questions, which examined the problem and testing the mobility of the shoulder girdle using  an inclinometer and functional tests. Descriptive statistics were made. The greatest limitation of the range of motion in the shoulder joint is observed in the sagittal plane - flexion. No injury was associated with a prolonged break from training. Conclusion: Squash players did not have hypomobility in the shoulder joint and even had a limited range of motion. Long-term breaks in squash training do not increase the level of trauma.


squash, mobility, shoulder joint, injury

Full Text:



Bogdanowicz M.: Leworęczność u dzieci, Warszawa, WSiP, 1992.

Finch CF, Eime RF.:The epidemiology of squash injuries International Sportmed Journal 2001 2 (2): 1-11.

Guzowski K., Deficyt rotacji wewnętrznej w stawie ramiennym a aktywność i siła mięśni stabilizujących łopatkę u tenisistów, Arthroscopy and Joint Surgery 2010;6 (1): 5-17.

Hughes M, Maynard I, Lees I, Reilly T.: Science and Racket Sports II Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN, 2009. s. 24 - 25

Kibler WB, Chandler TJ, Livingston BP, Roetert EP.: Shoulder range of motion in elite tennis players. Effect of age and years of tournament play. Am J Sports Med, 1996; 24(3): 279–85

Kibler WB: The Role of the Scapula in Athletic Shoulder Function. AmJ Sports Med, 1998; 26: 325-37.

Koffler KM, Bader D, Eager M. et al: The effect of posterior capsular tightness on glenohumeral translation in the late-cocking phase of pitching: a cadaveric study. Arthroscopy Association of North America Annual Meeting, Washington DC, May–June, 2002,Volume 18, Issue 5, Supplement, Pages 11–13.

Królak A, Zieliński J.: Tenis XXI wieku, Pruszków, Wydawnictwo Naukowe WSKFiT, 2005.

Lees A, Cabello T, Torres G.: Science and Racket Sports IV Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN, 2009. s. 30 -32.

Matsen FA III, Artnz CT.: Subacromial impingement. In Rockwood CA Jr, Matsen FA III (eds.). The Shoulder. Philadelphia, PA.: WB Saunders; 1990; 623–36 39.

Schmidt-Wiethoff R: Kinematic analysis of internal and external rotation range of motion in professional tennis. Med Sci Tennis, 2003;8(2): 18

Schmidt-Wiethoff R, Rapp W, Mauch F et al: Shoulder rotation characteristics in professional tennis players. Int J Sports Med, 2004; 25(2):154–58.

Torres RR, Gomes JL.: Measurement of glenohumeral internal rotation in asymptomatic tennis players and swimmers. Am J Sports Med, 2009;37(5): 1017–23.

Tyler TF, Nicholas SJ, Roy T, Gleim GW.: Quantification of posteriori capsular tightness and motion loss in patients with shoulder impingement. Am J Sports Med, 2000; 28: 668–73.

Zimmer K.: Najczęstsze urazy sportowe, Medycyna. 2004 s. 455 - 480.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 © The Author (s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014

POL-index 2011 - 2014

BASE 2011 - 2014

Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI

Find a library that holds this journal:

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland



Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2 Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.,p24782242,3.html

ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase


Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ)

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski