Emotional regulation and the occurrence and course of hypertension

Małgorzata Agnieszka Piotrowska-Półrolnik, Izabela Krejtz, Paweł Holas


This article aims to draw attention to the role of psychological factors in morbidity, progression, as well as in the treatment of hypertension. Psychological factors, especially how a person regulates negative emotions, can contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease or exacerbation of these diseases.

Over the past several decades, many data have been collected showing the relationship of psycho-emotional factors to the development and development of somatic diseases, including hypertension. More and more research shows that emotional regulation is associated with the occurrence and severity of hypertension.

The consequence of this knowledge is the search for psychosocial interventions that could lead to a reduction in blood pressure in hypertensive people. Among them, preliminary research deals with such interventions as meditation training including transcendental meditation, slow breath training, and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training. In these training sessions hope is also given in cases where it is difficult to normalize the pressure values with only normotensive drugs.


emotional regulation, hypertension

Full Text:

PDF (Polski)


Alexander, C. N., Schneider, R. H., Staggers, F., Sheppard, W., Clayborne, B. M., Rainforth, M., Salerno, J., Kondwani, K., Smith, S., Walton, K. G., Egan, B. (1996). Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. II. Sex and risk subgroup analysis. Hypertension, 28 (2), 228-37. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.28.2.228

Clark, L.A. i Watson D. (2002). Funkcjonalne i dysfunkcjonalne reakcje uczuciowe. W: Ekman, P., Davidson, R. J. (red.), Natura emocji podstawowe zagadnienia. Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne (s. 119-125).

Diamond, E. L. (1982). The Role of Anger and Hostility in Essential Hypertension and Coronary Heart Disease. Psychological Bulletin, 2, 410-433.

Doliński D. (2004). Ekspresja emocji. Emocje podstawowe i pochodne. W: Strelau, J. (2004) Psychologia podręcznik akademicki. Tom 2. Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.

Doliński, D. i Błaszczak, W. (2011). Dynamika emocji. Teoria i praktyka. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Ekman, P., Davidson, R. J. (2002). Natura emocji podstawowe zagadnienia. Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.

Everson, S. A., Goldberg, D. E., Kaplan, G. A., Julkunen, J. i Salonen, J. T. (1998) Anger expression and incident hypertension. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60(6), 730-5.

Field, T. (2009). Progressive muscle relaxation. W: Field, T. (red.). Complementary and alternative therapies research. Waszyngton: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11859-010

Gerin, W., Davidson, K. W., Schwartz, A. R. i Christenfeld, N. (2002). The role of emotional regulation in the development of hypertension. International Congress Series,1241, 91–97.

Gross, J.J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39, 281–291.

Górska, D. i Soroko, E. (2004). Poznawcze aspekty regulacji emocji. W: Kaliszewska, K., Sakson-Obada, O., Zielona-Jenek, M. i Zinczuk, J. (red.). Emocje – subiektywne doświadczenie czy zdarzenie interpersonalne? Poznań: Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe.

Helmers, K. F., Baker, B., O'Kelly, B. i Tobe, S. (2000). Anger expression, gender, and ambulatory blood pressure in mild, unmedicated adults with hypertension. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 22(1), 60-64.

Hosseini, S. H., Mokhberi, V., Mohammadpour, R. A., Mehrabianfard, M. i Lashak, N. B. (2011). Anger expression and suppression among patients with essential hypertension. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 15, 214–218.


Hughes, J. W., Fresco, D. M., Myerscough, R., van Dulmen, M., Carlson, L. E. i Josephson, R. (2013). Randomized Controlled Trial of Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction for Prehypertension. Psychosomatic Medicine, 75(8), 721-8. DOI:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3182a3e4e5

Januszewicz, A. i Prejbisz, A, (2015). Nadciśnienie tętnicze. Problemy współczesnej terapii w praktyce klinicznej. Kraków: Medycyna praktyczna.

Joseph, C.N., Porta, C., Casucci, G., Casiraghi, N., Maffeis, M., Rossi, M. i Bernardi, L. (2005). Slow Breathing Improves Arterial Baroreflex Sensitivity and Decreases Blood Pressure in Essential Hypertension. Hypertension. 46, 714-718. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000179581.68566.7d

Juczyński, Z. (2009). Narzędzia Pomiaru w Promocji i Psychologii Zdrowia. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.

Kaushik, R. M., Kaushik, R., Mahajan, S. K., Rajesh, V. (2006). Effects of mental relaxation and slow breathing in essential hypertension. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 14, 120–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2005.11.007

Kawecka-Jaszcz, K. i Kocemba J. (2005). Nadciśnienie tętnicze. W: Mandecki, T. (2005). Kardiologia. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL.

Mourya, M., Mahajan, A. S., Singh, N. P. i Jain, A. K. (2009). Effect of Slow- and Fast-Breathing Exercises on Autonomic Functions in Patients with Essential Hypertension. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(7), 711–717.

Rainforth, M. A., Schneider, R. H., Nidich, S. I., Gaylord-King, C., Salerno, J. W. i Anderson, J. W. (2007). Stress Reduction Programs in Patients with Elevated Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Current Hypertension Reports, 9(6), 520–528.

Schum, J. L., Jorgensen, R. S., Verhaeghen, P., Sauro, M. i Thibodeau, R. (2003). Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Ambulatory Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 26, 395-415. DOI:10.1023/A:1025767900757

Spielberger, C. D., Johnson, E. H., Russell, S. F., Crane, R. J., Jacobs, G. A. i Worden, T. J. (1985). The experience and expression of anger: construction and validation of an Anger Expression Scale. w: Chesney M. A., Rosenman R. H. (red.) Anger and hostility in cardiovascular and behavioral disorders. New York: Hemisphere. 5–30.

Symonides, B., Holas, P., Schram, M., Śleszycka, J., Bogaczewicz, A. i Gaciong, Z. (2014). Does the control of negative emotions influence blood pressure control and its variability? Blood Pressure, 1-7. DOI: 10.3109/08037051.2014.901006

Yan, L. L., Liu, K., Matthews, K. A., Daviglus, M. L., Ferguson., T. F. i Kiefe, C. I. (2003). Psychosocial factors and risk of hypertension: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association. 290 (16), 2138–2148. DOI: 10.1001/jama.290.16.2138

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.580863


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Małgorzata Agnieszka Piotrowska-Półrolnik, Izabela Krejtz, Paweł Holas

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education, Health and Sport formerly Journal of Health Sciences

Declaration on the original version.

Editors indicates that the main version of the magazine is to issue a "electronic".

The journal has had 5 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. § 8. 2) and § 12. 1. 2) 22.02.2019.

1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7

ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

Archives 2011 - 2014

PBN 2011 - 2014


POL-index 2011 - 2014


BASE 2011 - 2014




Indexed in Bases, Bazy indeksacyjne: ERIH Plus, Worldcat, PBN/POL-Index, ICI Journals Master List, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), ZBD, Ulrich's periodicals, Google Scholar, Polska Bibliografia Lekarska

US NLM = 101679844

101679844 - NLM Catalog Result - NCBI


Find a library that holds this journal: http://worldcat.org/issn/23918306

Journal Language(s): English 

PBN Poland






Redaction, Publisher and Editorial Office

Instytut Kultury Fizycznej Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Institute of Physical Education Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland 85-091 Bydgoszcz ul. Sportowa 2  www.ukw.edu.pl Copyright by Instytut Kultury Fizycznej UKW w Bydgoszczy http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs  Open Access ISSN 2391-8306 formerly ISSN: 1429-9623 / 2300-665X

The journal has been approved for inclusion in ERIH PLUS.

The ERIH PLUS listing of the journal is available at https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info?id=485984

SIC Science citation index (calculated on the basis of TCI and Page Rank) 0

Russian Impact factor 0.16

Indexed in Index Copernicus Journals Master List.


ICV 2018 = 95.95 ICV 2017 = 91.30 ICV 2016 = 84.69 ICV 2015 = 93.34 ICV 2014 = 89.51 Standardized Value: 8.27 ICV 2013: 7.32 ICV 2012: 6.41 ICV 20115.48

The InfoBase Index IBI Factor for the year 2015 is 3.56 in InfoBase Index.com.

Website: www.infobaseindex.com

Universal Impact Factor 1.78 for year 2012. (http://www.uifactor.org/AppliedJournals.aspx)

Indexed in Polish Scholarly Bibliography (PBN) (PBN Polska Bibliografia Naukowa) (https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/journals/36616)

is a portal of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, collecting information on publications of Polish scientists and on Polish and foreign scholarly journals. Polish Scholarly Bibliograhpy is a part of POL-on - System of Information on Higher Education. It is operated by the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw.

Indexed in Russian Sciences Index Российский индекс научного цитирования (РИНЦ) http://elibrary.ru/contents.asp?titleid=37467

Indexed in Arianta Polish scientific and professional electronic journals Aneta Drabek i Arkadiusz Pulikowski